Wild Men on the North Fork

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Varieties and Sources, part 4: Peppers to Squash

Peppers

Peppers seem to have originated from three sources: India, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America. Peppers are started indoors and set into the garden as young plants after all danger of frost is past. Look for fewer days to maturity, superior wall thickness, and size, in that order. Tall peppers often require some support staking, but their fruit is 'burned' by wire or metal supports. Peppers like loose 'friable' soil. I like to add spagnum moss to their soil. Peppers require protection from the wind when they are first set out. Our Wyoming wind can kill a pepper plant. Plant peppers in pvc tubes. Peppers love tubes

Links: University of Illinois Extension, Texas A&M, New Mexico State University, Hot Pepper Rating Guide, The Chemistry of Chilli Peppers,

Soils: Prefers loose soil, with lots of humus. Sandy is fine. Do not add fertilizer.

Companions: Onions and other Allium

Germination: 96 percent when soils are 68 degrees.

Group: Nightshade (Capsicum annuum) Other Nightshades: Egg Plant, Potato, Tomato. Harvest when full grown. Can be left on to turn color to yellow or red. Colored peppers are more mellow in flavor. Harvest hot peppers in the red stage.

Planting: Set out as plants when all chance of frost is past.

Note that this Pepper Section has been revised between the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons to reflect my changing thinking about how we use peppers. Also note that I have given a rating for each variety based upon days-to-maturity, size, and productivity. In each case, I have selected short-season peppers that should do well in our climate.

= Rated for Taste
= Rated for Production



Sweet Peppers - Standard and Nonstandard Bell Types


Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Dimensions Rating
Jung 72, SeedsN 70, Ttom 70, Recommend

Big Bertha Hybrid - GREEN -
usually tapering, light green, offered by many greenhouses, a vigorous producer of large bells, usually 3 crops in a summer. This hybrid has been rebred and now has nice thick walls. Grown in 2012 with great results. Grown in 2013. But we did not actually get Big Bertha plants. Grown in 2014, 2015, 2018. Will grow again.. Medium Seed Potency
18 inch plant, 7 inch fruit ? points
Park 45, Recommend

Early Thickset -
BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 4 inches wide, green or red. From the Park catalog: "The Earliest Pepper Yet! Big Blocky Bells are Borne in the Crown--No Sunscald! Thick-walled, 3- to 4-lobed bright red fruit arises in clusters of a dozen or more! Earlier and more prolific than ever! 3- to 4-lobed bells have walls an incredible 1/2-inch thick, offering great texture and flavor retention! 5 inches long and 4 inches wide, these bulky bells arise in clusters of 12 or more right at the crown of the plant, perfectly protected from sunscald! They begin glossy green and then mature to bright red while remaining firm, thick, and juicy! Ready to harvest 2 to 3 weeks earlier than most other big bells, Park's Early Thickset Hybrid Improved is one of the finest peppers you can grow for the home garden. The yields are huge on TMV-resistant plants, the harvest is early, and the fruit is simply mouth-watering! Set 2 feet apart in full sun. If planting many, space rows about 3 feet apart. Fertilize when the blooms appear, and water well. Fruit is most nutritious if allowed to ripen on the plant." Grown in 2012 with great results. Will grow in 2013.
?" plant, 4"x 5" fruit 5,120 points
John 59, Jung 62, SeedsN 62, Ttom 61, Vrmt 61, Recommend

King Arthur - (formerly known as Fat N Sassy)
BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, blocky, sweet, harvest either green or red, exceptional yeilds. Grown in 2004-11. Will grow in '10. We think this is the best bell pepper you can plant. We will grow this in 2019. High Seed Potency
22" plant, 3"x4.5" fruit 2,592 points
Park 71, Recommend

Whopper Improved - BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, turns red at maturity, fruit is shielded by leaves. 4 inches wide. Developed by Park. Barry Franck grows this every year with good luck. He had such good luck with it in 2011 that I have to recommend it.
? inch plant, 4"x4" fruit 1,152 points
Gurn 70, Stok 72, Ttom 70, Vrmt 70, Recommend

Bell Boy - BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls. From the Jung catalog: "Considered one of the best all-purpose early bell peppers. Sturdy, vigorous plants bear a heavy crop of large, blocky, mostly 4 lobed peppers which can be used when a deep glossy green or left to turn bright red. Fruits are uniformly large, thick walled and fine quality. Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus. 1967 AAS Winner". This variety is sold in many greenhouses because of its dependability.
? inch plant, 4"x4" fruit 1,008 points
Considering:
Jung 69, SeedsN 66, Ttom 70, King of the North - BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 6 inches wide, green or red. From the Jung catalog: "The most reliable bell pepper for northern climates. Plants bear heavy yields of huge, blocky, 6 inch fruits with juicy, thick walls and fantastic, sweet flavor that only improves as the fruits ripen. Great for stuffing, fresh eating or just about anything. Tolerates cooler growing conditions remarkably well." ?" plant, 6"x6" fruit 1,944 points
John 57, Jung 66, SeedsN 66, Red Knight - BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 6 inches wide, green or red. From the Johnny's catalog: "King Arthur type with better disease resistance and a more compact open plant.

Get a jump on the season with a large, early, green-to-red pepper. Big, blocky, thick-walled, and turns red early. Fruity and sweet. Widely adapted."

?" plant, 6"x6" fruit 1,944 points
Jung 65, SeedsN 58, Gourmet - BELL, GREEN TO ORANGE - thick walls, 6 inches wide, green or red. From the Jung catalog: "Big, beautiful, brilliant orange bells with ultra-sweet flavor. It's hard to believe the short, compact plants can produce fruits so large and in such prolific numbers. The blocky, thick-walled, 3 inch wide by 5 inch long fruits quickly turn from green to vibrant orange. Bears over a long period. TMV resistant." ?" plant, 3"x5" fruit 1,944 points
Varieties We Rate as Failures: Gourmet Sweet (12), Karma, Goliath, Red Beauty, Gurney's Giant
Varieties We Rate as So-So: Margaret's (12), Redstart,


Sweet Peppers - Other Types: Horn, Cone, Cubanelle


Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Dimensions Rating
John 60, Jung 60, SeedsN 65, Ttom 60, Recommend

Carmen = AAS Winner
- HORN, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2.5 inches wide. From the Park catalog: "Big, horn-shaped fruits have wide shoulders, a tapered shape, and green-to-red color. 75 days from transplanting. Here's a Sweet Italian Pepper you can grow on the porch or balcony as well as in the vegetable patch! Just 28 inches high and about 16 inches wide, these plants are so compact they'll "fit in" anywhere, yet so heavy-bearing and delicious they won a 2006 All-America Selection! The peppers are horn-shaped, with wide shoulders and a tapering body. They turn from green to deep red, increasing their vitamin content as they redden. And the flavor is remarkable -- super-sweet, either raw or cooked! Widely adaptable, Carmen is the Pepper your whole family will love. Stuff them, saute them, or chop and eat them fresh from the plant -- this is certain to become your new favorite! Start seeds indoors or, in climate with short growing seasons, outdoors at least one week after last frost. If starting indoors, allow 7 to 10 weeks for the seeds to mature into seedlings large enough to transplant safely. Fertilize when the blooms appear, and water well. Fruit is most nutritious if allowed to turn red on the plant, but it will have its full complement of flavor even when green." High Seed Potency
28" plant, 2.5"x 6" fruit 3,060 points
Considering:
Park 65, SeedsN 80, Ttom 80, Atris Hybrid - HORN, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Park catalog: "Thick-walled fruit is very heavy -- great for stuffing! Winner of Britain's Top Honor, the Award of Garden Merit 65 days. Indeterminate. Giant, packed with sweet flavor, and so lovely, these horn-shaped peppers measure 9 inches long, maturing from green to rich, glossy red on very heavy-yielding plants. Everything about Atris is satisfying and over-the-top delicious -- no wonder it received England's top honor for a vegetable from seed, the Royal Horticulture Society's prestigious Award of Garden Merit! The fruit is long and slender, yet the walls are very thick (great for stuffing!) and surprisingly heavy, filled with meaty, juicy, super-sweet flavor. Better plan to pickle some of these peppers, because the plant is very heavy-yielding over a long season, and you're soon going to be harvesting armloads of delectable goodness! But that's all right -- you will keep finding new uses for this versatile fruit, dicing it into sauces, chopping it into salads, grilling, stuffing, and baking it. Vigorous and highly productive, this is one of the best peppers of any type you can grow. Discover its attractive plate appeal, ease of culture, and scrumptious flavor this season. You'll be back for more!" High Seed Potency ?" plant, 2"x 9" fruit 1,728 points
Burp 72, Good As Gold - HORN, GREEN TO YELLOW - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Jung catalog: "Good as gold. 2012 taste test champ scores big points for beauty, flavor and productivity. Green-to-golden orange 7" Italian pepper is extremely tasty, savory and robust whether grilled, sautéed or fresh. Cooking only enhances the fine flavor." High Seed Potency 18" plant, 2"x 5" fruit 1,440 points
Varieties We Rate as So-So: Whitney (12),


Mildly Hot Peppers - Many Types


Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Dimensions Rating
John 65, Park 65, Recommend Tiburon - ANCHO, GREEN TO RED TO BLACK - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Park catalog: At 2,000 Scovilles, this pepper is just mildly hot! The fresh pepper is called Poblano; the dried form is Ancho, with a raisin-like flavor combined with mild heat. 65 days. The mainstay of southwestern and Latin cuisine, the Poblano pepper is the fresh form of the popular spice called Ancho pepper. And Tiburon Hybrid is just about the best Poblano available anywhere, offering huge yields of disease-resistant, extra-large, dark green to red fruit! Each of these horn-shaped fruits is 3-lobed, very thick-walled, glossy, smooth, and larger than expected, reaching up to 7 inches. Perfect for stuffing fresh, it holds up well when cooked, and is ideal for drying whole and then grinding into Ancho spice. With a heat factor of 2,000 Scovilles (as compared with, say, 215,000 for the fiery Habanero!), Tiburon Hybrid is a barely-warm, fruity-sweet pepper whose flavor has been compared to that of a raisin . . . plus a little spice, of course! Tiburon is resistant to bacterial spot and tobacco mosaic virus, offering big, healthy yields on plants 20 to 30 inches tall. Pick it when it turns dark green for firm fruit suitable for stuffing, or let it turn red (which contains more vitamins) before harvest. Either way, you'll have plenty of spicy-sweet eating from this meaty, generously sized pepper! Start seeds indoors or, in climate with short growing seasons, outdoors at least one week after last frost. If starting indoors, allow 7 to 10 weeks for the seeds to mature into seedlings large enough to transplant safely. Fertilize when the blooms appear, and water well. Fruit is most nutritious if allowed to ripen on the plant." Grown in 2012. Will grow in 2013. High Seed Potency 20" plant, 3"x 7" fruit 2,016 points
Considering:
Cook 50-75, Humdinger Jalapeno - HORN, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Cook's Garden catalog: "Hybrid. A robust variety, with large, smooth, solid 4 inches long green fruits ripening an intense bright red. Fruits have few dry lines or cracks. Not too hot — about half the heat of the hottest Jalapeno. A." High Seed Potency ?" plant, 2"x 8" fruit 972 points
Park 70, Jolly Giallo - BELL, GREEN TO YELLOW - thick walls, 5 inches wide, green or yellow. From the Park catalog: "Pick this ultra-sweet bell promptly and the plant may refruit! Thick-walled, meaty, and juicy. 70 days from setting out transplants. TMV. The largest yellow bell pepper we have ever seen, Jolly Giallo (the name is Italian for "yellow") is as delicious as it is attractive, with an ultra-sweet, juicy bite with a hint of pepper. These enormous 4-lobed fruits arise very abundantly on plants so vigorous that if you pick the first peppers promptly, it may just set a new crop before season's end. Jolly Giallo won the coveted Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticulture Society when it was introduced in 2005, and has proven to be a favorite among gardeners in all regions. The plant is stocky and very robust, resistant to Tobacco Mosaic Virus and holding its giant crop nicely. Keep the fruit picked for even more peppers! Start seeds indoors or, in climate with short growing seasons, outdoors at least one week after last frost. If starting indoors, allow 7 to 10 weeks for the seeds to mature into seedlings large enough to transplant safely. Set seedlings (or thin direct-sown seedlings) 2 feet apart in full sun. If planting many seedlings, space rows about 3 feet apart. Fertilize when the blooms appear, and water well. Fruit can be picked green and allowed to ripen and turn color in a sunny window, but is most nutritious if allowed to ripen on the plant." ?" plant, 5"x5" fruit 1,225 points
Farm 70, Jung 68-70, Park 68, SeedsN 69, Ttom 68-70, Mucho Nacho - JALAPENO, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Jung catalog: "Stuff them, slice them, mince them -- these big, fat, meaty peppers give you a family-pleasing flavor! A great "compromise" Jalapeno for folks who love that flavor but can't take the super-hot bite! 68 days. At last, a Jalapeno that satisfies your craving for hot, pungent spice without burning out the roof of your mouth! Mucho Nacho is a big, fat, heavy pepper with less heat and more meat (robust, thick-walled flesh) than Jalapeno M. If your family loves Mexican food but one or more members can't take extreme spiciness, this is the Jalapeno you've got to try! These 4-inch peppers are much weightier than other Jalapenos, with thick walls, a good crisp and juicy bite, and firm skin. You can stuff them without worrying about their collapse, and they're terrific for pickling, giving you a few extra slices from every fruit! But my favorite way to eat them is fresh from the 20- to 30-inch vine, minced into salsa and sliced on top of nachos. You can really taste the garden-fresh bite of this delicious Jalapeno! Start seeds indoors or, in climates with short growing seasons, outdoors at least one week after last frost. If starting indoors, allow 7 to 10 weeks for the seeds to mature into seedlings large enough to transplant safely. Fertilize when the blooms appear, and water well. Fruit is most nutritious if allowed to turn red on the plant, but it will have its full complement of flavor even when green. Pkt is 20 seeds." High Seed Potency 20" plant, 4" fruit 216 points
Park 68, Sahuaro - HORN, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Johnnys catalog: "Traditional, semi-flattened fruits for roasting, chile rellenos, and stir fries. Strong, sturdy, upright plants keep the 7-8" long peppers off the ground and protect them from sunburn. Much earlier and more prolific than Big Chile II. Avg. 5,200 seeds/oz. Mini: 30 seeds." High Seed Potency ?" plant, 2"x 8" fruit 972 points
Jung 60, SeedsN 60, Ttom 61, Cajun Bell - BELL, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Jung catalog: " The 2 inch to 3 inch by 3 1/2 inch bells have a sassy flavor that adds a little sizzle eaten fresh or for salsa. Fruits are ready to pick at the green stage up to 2 weeks earlier than others of this type, or if left on the plant their color changes to deep red. Compact and well-branched, 2 foot plants are very disease-resistant and highly productive. Can be grown in containers or the garden. Plant in full sun." High Seed Potency ?" plant, 3"x 3.5" fruit 714 points
Gurn 68, Jung 69, SeedsN 68, Ttom 68, Biggie Chile - HORN, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1.5 inches wide. From the Gurneys catalog: "Discriminating gardeners are falling in love with this crisp, sweet pepper whose clean aftertaste is quite refreshing fresh or stir-fried! Thick-walled fruits blush in shades of citrus, berry, and cherry red for beautiful color no matter when you pick. Highly adaptable, 28-in. plants set fruit in both hot and cool weather. 68 DAYS. Seed counts: 100 seeds sow a 20-ft. row." High Seed Potency 28" plant, 1.5"x 9" fruit 648 points
Varieties We Rate as Failures: Aruba (12)
Varieties We Rate as So-So: ?


Hot Peppers - Many Types


Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Dimensions Rating
Jung 69, Pine 77, Ttom 69, Recommend
Cherry Bomb -
- CHERRY, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1.5 inches wide. Grown in '08 with good success. From the Totally Tomato catalog: "First hybrid hot cherry, with 30-50 percent greater yield. Used both green and red for canning and pickling. Medium-hot, 2-1/2" by 1-1/2" fruits are thick-walled. Resists Tobacco Mosaic."
?" plant, 1.5" x 2.5" fruit 360 points
Stok 67, Ttom 65, Recommend
Big Bomb -
- CHERRY, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2 inches wide. Grown in 2009-2012 with good success. From the Totally Tomato catalog: " Move over Cherry Bomb - an even earlier cherry pepper is taking the market by storm! Big Bomb has it all - vigorous habit, fast cropping and extra-prolific yields of uniform, 2" fruits that explode with rapid maturity to a brilliant red. Fruits are moderately pungent, with thick walls that retain their shape when pickled. Resilient under a wide range of growing conditions."
?" plant, 2" x 2.5" fruit 720 points
Burp 64, John 65, Stok 65, Recommend
Cheyenne
- CAYENNE, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Johnnys catalog: "New! Sweet and hot cayenne for fresh use. Attractive wrinkled fruits avg 8-9" with moderately thick walls. Flavor is excellent-fruits are both sweet and moderately hot. Excellent for frying and in salsas. High-yielding, medium-sized plants. Avg. 85,000 seeds/lb. Mini: 30 seeds. Days to Maturity or Bloom: 65 green, 85 red ripe". Grown in 2012. Will grow in 2013. High Seed Potency
?" plant, 1" x 9" fruit 864 points
Considering:
John 57, Hot Rod, Serano - - JALPENO, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Johnnys catalog: "Hot Rod is a traditional serrano with avg 3" fruits borne on big plants over a long harvest period. The dark green fruits are traditionally eaten green but also make fine chipotles if allowed to ripen to red. Typically used in Mexican dishes, but are also excellent in Southeast Asian, Chinese, and Indian dishes. A couple of days later, but much higher yielding, than Serrano Del Sol, which it replaces. Avg. 66,200 seeds/lb. Packet: 25 seeds." ?" plant, 3.5" fruit 280 points
John 57, Jalafuego, Jalapeno - - JALPENO, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Johnnys catalog: "Our highest yielding jalapeno. Vigorous plants consistently produce very high yields of 3 1/2 to 4" fruits that are resistant to cracking. Similar to El Jefe, but a few days later with a higher yield potential. Resistant to BLS 1-3. Avg. 50,000 seeds/lb. Packet: 25 seeds." ?" plant, 3.5" fruit 280 points
John 57, Highlander, Anaheim - - ANAHEIM, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Johnnys catalog: "Bred by Johnny's to have good productivity even in cooler regions where Anaheim types often are shy yielding. Traditional, semi-flattened, mostly two-lobed fruits avg. 7" x 2". Earlier and with longer fruits than Numex Joe E. Parker. Large, tall plants. Widely adapted. Organically grown. Avg. 53,000 seeds/lb. Packet: 25 seeds." ?" plant, 3.5" fruit 280 points
Burp 65, Jung 62, SeedsN 60, Ttom 62, Gypsy - - CONE, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2.5 inches wide. From the Burpee catalog: "Very prolific frying pepper. All-America Winner. Very prolific frying pepper that goes great fresh in salads as well. Tapered fruits grow 4 ½" long by 2 ½" wide, and mature yellow to orange to red. Harvest starts about 65 days after plants are set out. Product Details: Sun: Full Sun, Sowing Method: Indoor Sow, Days to Maturity: 65 days, Height: 18-24 inches, Spread: 12 inches" 18" plant, 2.5" x 4.5" fruit 1200 points
Burp 65, Ristra Cayenne - CAYENNE, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 0.75 inch wide. From the Burpee catalog: "This super producer yields impressive numbers of foot-long fruits. They start off a lovely lime green then ripen fully to bright crimson red. Exceptionally thin walls make the harvests excellent for stringing into large 'ristras' for quick drying. Then snip one from the bunch when ready to use and crumble into a pot of chili or bowl of salsa. Chop or slice thinly and eat fresh too. Strong plants hold fruits high for easy picking. Cayenne peppers have 30,000-50,000 Scovilles of heat- 6 times hotter than a Jalapeno but one-third to one-tenth the heat of a Habanero." High Seed Potency ?" plant, 0.75" x 12" fruit 432 points
John 70, El Jefe - - JALAPENO, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Johnnys catalog: "Large, smooth fruit. Tall, high-yielding plants with resistance to BLS 1-3. Compared to Conchos, El Jefe has slightly larger fruit with narrower shoulders and less checking (cracks in skin). Easy to pick. Avg. 4,000 seeds/oz. Mini: 30 seeds. Plant Cycle: Days to Maturity or Bloom: 67 green, 90 red ripe" ?" plant, 3.5" fruit 280 points
Burp 66, Biker Billy - JALAPENO, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 2 inches wide. From the Burpee catalog: "A blazingly hot jalapeño 59 days to harvest. the hottest we've ever tasted. Burpee Exclusive. Customer Favorite! We've named this flaming red pepper after Bill (Biker Billy) Hufnagle, a guy who loves hot peppers as much as we do. Biker Billy's a freewheeling food lover, pepper gardener, vegetarian and Harley rider, whose motto is "Life's too short for dull food." Hot peppers, he says, offer more fun and more flavors than any other vegetable. So take your taste buds on a culinary road trip with our hot Biker Billy pepper, a jalapeno packed with rich flavor. Billy likes them flaming red and at their sweetest. Fruits are large, measuring 2" at the shoulder and 3.5" long. " High Seed Potency ?" plant, 4" fruit 264 points
Bakr 70, Jung 67, Pine 65, Stok 60, Hungarian Hot Wax - - CONE, GREEN TO RED - thick walls, 1 inch wide. From the Baker Creek catalog: "70 days. A Hungarian heirloom that is excellent for short season areas, very popular for canning and pickling. Medium to very hot fruit are light yellow in color; sets fruit over a long season. " ?" plant, 3.5" fruit 280 points
Varieties We Rate as Failures: Krimzon Lee (12), Serano del Sol (12),
Varieties We Rate as So-So: Giant Thai Hot (12)

Potato

One of two vegetables grown commercially in Wyoming. Potatoes were first grown by Native Americans in South America. Potatoes are cheap to buy in the store. But some like to be able to pick their own new potatoes in early summer to cook with new peas. All potatoes will grow here. Watch for fungus, blight, and beetle attack.

I received a catalog from Irish Eyes Garden Seeds last year and this year too. The general selection is standard fare. But I have to tell you that the Potato selection is fantastic. It is the best I have ever seen. Also, if you need to order Potatoes in large volumes, you might look at the Peaceful Valley Catalog.

Links: North Carolina State University, University of Illinois Extension,

Soils: Prefers loose soil, with lots of humus. Sandy is fine. Do not add fertilizer.

Companions: Corn, Beans, Cabbage, Peas, Strawberry, Watermelon

Germination:

Group: Nightshade (Solanum tuberosum) Other Nightshades: Egg Plant, Pepper, Tomato. If we grow potatoes in 2005 it will be in rows in regular, well drained dirt. Note: We have not grown potatoes since 2004. We find them very tough to grow in the plots because of the amount of noxious bugs there. Insects bring blight with them. Bill Simpson gave me some Pontiac Potatoes he had grown (2004). The flavor of those spuds was wonderful. He has been growing potatoes every year. In 2007 he gave me some Red Norlands he had grown - wonderful!. In 2009 he discovered Viking and is very fond of those.

Planting: Plant eyes early in spring.

Pumpkin

Pumpkin are squashes. Squashes, in turn, are in the gourd branch of the cucumber family, or the cucumber branch of the gourd family, depending on which Botonist you talk to. Pumpkins were first planted by Native Americans. Most pumpkins are long seasoned, and so do not grow and mature well in Wyoming. However, there are a few pumpkins that do perform consistently well.

Habit - Pumpkins, like all squash, like rich soil, heat, and lots of water. Plant seeds directly into the garden as soon as all danger of frost is past. Cover when frost threatens in early September to extend production.

You can start pumpkins indoors and set them out. But my own observation is that the plants seeded outdoors will catch up to plants that have been set out. Also, plants that have been seeded outdoors will grow up with our wind and be wind-hardy. Plants set out will get whacked by the wind, and sometimes die as a result. So set plants out in the two to four leaf stages, and no later.

Links: University of Illinois Extension, History of Pumpkins, Carving Pumpkins,

Soils: Prefers year-old droppings in moderate quantities, or light applications of commercial fertilizer. Humus should be 25 to 50 % of soil.

Companions: Beans, Corn, Some Squash.

Germination: 95 percent when soils are 59 degrees. Beans don't seem to like really hot soil for germination.

Group: Cucurbita Other Cucubita: Squash. Let pumpkins ripen on the vine if possible. But do not allow them to freeze. They will orange up if stored indoors. Leave 3 to 4 inches of stem.

Planting: Set plants out or direct seed when all danger of frost is past.

Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Maturity Size/Yield
Considering: none for 2007-2011
http://www.reimerseeds.com/
Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Product
Recommend:
Jung 90, Recommend
Autumn Gold , [AAS Winner]
starts out yellow, then turns gold and finally orange when ripe. You may be harvesting your first one in mid-August. Medium Seed Potency
5 to 10 pounds
Jung 100, Recommend
Bush Spirit, [AAS Winner]
a true bush pumpkin, can grow good sized fruit. Dependable. Medium Seed Potency
5 to 20 pounds
Bakr 95, Burp 110, Jung 95, Pine 100, SeedsN 105, Recommend
Rouge Vif D'Etampes (Also known as Cinderella)(Curcurbita Maxima)
- beautiful, flattened, ribbed, large fruit. Most common pumpkin in the central market in Paris in the 1880s. Good yeilder. Grown in 2013_2018 with wonderful results. Will grow again in 2019. Low Seed Potency
?
Considering:
Bakr 120, Burp 110, John 125, Pine 105, Reim 125, SeedsN 98, Musquee de Provence - From the Burpee Catalog: "Favorite pumpkin of chefs. -

A beautiful heirloom from the south of France with large 20 lb. flattened fruits that are heavily ribbed. Green when immature, they turn a lovely deep brown when fully ripe. The deep orange flesh is a particular favorite of chefs for its fine flavor." Low Seed Potency

8-20 pounds
Considering:
John 105, Fall Splendor - From the Johnnys Cataglog: " Selected for productivity, shape, and color. Ideal for fall markets, pick-your own operations, and home decoration. Fruits avg. 5-7 lb; have a blocky round shape; and large, strong, dark green handles that make them easy to carry. Avg. yield: 2-3 fruits/plant. Short vines." Grown in 2013. Will grow again. Low Seed Potency 4-5 pounds
Pine 96, Spookie - From the Pine Tree catalog: "Spookie is a cross between a sugar pie and jack o'lantern pumplins, creating a variety great for pie or for carving on the porch." 10 pounds
Bakr ?, John 105, Jung 85-100, Pine 100, Winter Luxury - From the Jung catalog: "Makes the most velvety pumpkin pie you'll ever eat! Nearly 100 years later, we still rate this pumpkin among the best. It is enormously productive, medium in size being about ten inches in diameter, almost globe shaped and ripens early. The skin is finely netted and color is a beautiful golden russet which is a sign of fine quality. The flesh is very thick, sweet and sugary and deep golden in color. An excellent keeper for winter use." 8 to 12 pounds
Bakr 100, New England Sugar Pie (C. Pepo) - From the Baker Creek Cataglog: " The noted small sugar pumpkin of New England. The orange fruit weigh 4-5 pounds and have fine sweet flesh that isw superb for piews. Described by Fearing Burr in 1863." Low Seed Potency 4-5 pounds
Varieties We Rate as Failures: Golden Hawk, Casper, Streaker Jack, Howden, Sorcerer
Varieties We Rate as So-So: We-B-Little, Baby Boo, Jack-Be-Little, Gurney's Giant

Radish

Radishes were first grown in China. Radish is a very short seasoned crop, and can be sown in succession. It seems to do best in the cool of the spring, but some varieties will tolerate heat pretty well. I have grown nearly every kind. They can be difficult to grow and probably need some shade in really hot weather. I like to try to get three crops per summer.

Links: University of Illinois Extension, North Carolina State University, Radish Facts,

Soils: Prefers loose soil, with lots of humus. Sandy is fine. Do not add fertilizer.

Companions:Beans, Carrots, Cucumbers, Lettuce, Melons, Peas, Squash, Tomatoes

Germination: 97 percent when soils are 59 degrees.

Group: Radish (Raphanus sativus) Thin radish when they are the size of marbles. Do not let them grow larger than 1 inch in diameter. Above 1 inch they get woody and hot.

Planting: Sew directly early in spring

Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Product
Recommend:
Burp 22, Jung 22, Pine 21, SeedsN 22, Recommend
Cherry Belle, [AAS Winner]
a round, red radish, well adapted to Wyoming.
3/4 to 2 inches
Jung 30, Pine 29, SeedsN 28, Recommend
German Giant -
can grow as big as a baseball. Grown in 2002-2012. Seems to perform well in heat. We will grow this variety again.
3/4 to 2 inches
Considering:
Bakr ?, John 27, Jung 27, Pine 30, SeedsN 30, White Icicle, Long - From the Jung catalog: " Slim pure white radishes. Tapered roots are very brittle and grow about 4 inches long. Flesh is crisp and mild flavored. Holds quality well. A long time garden favorite introduced in 1896." Grown in 2009-2010. Will grow in again. 5 inches
Jung 25, Pine 25, Reim 25, SeedsN 25, French Breakfast red, sharp-peppery flavor. From the Jung catalog: "Elongated shape and appealing color. These heirloom, bicolor radishes of bright red tipped with white are about 2 inches long by 3/4 inches wide. A delicious and attractive addition to the relish tray, crisp and tender with mild flavor." ? inches
Bakr ?, Burp 60, John 50, Jung 50-60, Pine 50, SeedsN 35, Ttom 59, Watermelon - or - Red Meat, Round red, sharp-peppery flavor. From the Burpee catalog: "Heirloom. A beautiful and antique treasure from China, these large 3 - 3.5" round roots are creamy white outside with a full central burst of watermelon rose. Flesh is crispy and mild, with a sweet flavor perfect for salads, garnishes, or cooking." ? inches
Bakr ?, Peac 40-50, Chinese Rose, Long - red, mild flavor 4-5 inches
Bakr ?, Chinese Green Luobo - green, mild flavor 4-5 inches
Bakr ?, Long Scarlet - red, mild flavor 4-5 inches
Jung 40-45, Dragon - red, mild flavor 4-5 inches
John 50, Pine 50, Green Meat, Long - green, mild flavor 4-5 inches
John 32, Shunkyo, Long - red, mild flavor 4-5 inches

Spinach

I have grown several varieties of spinach through the years. It tends to bolt just when the leaves are getting nice and big. I have replaced spinach now with swiss chard. To be successful with spinach I think you will have to plant very early.

Squash

Squash were first planted by Native Americans. I am not really crazy about Summer Squash, except when cooked in a dish like rattatoi. I have grown yellow straight and yellow crookneck and do not care to grow them again. I have grown all forms of Zucchini and only find one I like. Most families have a hard time eating the fruit from one Zucchini plant. So do not go crazy and plant a lot of it. Your neighbors won't like having them tossed over the fence or left in their cars in the middle of the night. If you just have to raise Zucchini, and you actually want heavy production, I would tell you to plant Greyzini. All squash like lots of water and rich soil. You must keep Zucchini picked to keep it flowering and to keep them from attaining the size of a B 52 drop tank.

Winter Squash is generally firmer fleshed and sweeter than Summer Squash. It is called Winter Squash because, unlike Summer Squash, it stores well and can be eaten later...even in the winter.

Links: What's Cooking America, UI:Winter Squash, UI:SummerSquash,

Soils: Prefers lots of humus and lots of droppings, or heavy commercial fertilizer; but will grow in any soil. Soil should be loose, sandy is fine.

Companions: Beans, Corn, Melons, Pumpkin, Radishes, Other Squash

Germination: 95 percent when soils are 59 degrees. This one loves cool soils.

Group: Cucurbita Other Cucurbita: Pumpkin, Winter Squash. Try growing squash in tires. They love the extra heat.

Planting: Set out or Sew directly after all danger of frost is past.

= Rated for Taste
= Rated for Production



Squash - Summer


Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Plant Height/Length Product
Recommend:
Cook ?, Park 45, Reim 50, Stok 52, Recommend
Gold Rush Zucchini, [AAS Winner]
(Cucurbita pepo) - vigourous plants, yellow fruit has sweet flesh, not ever bitter, tender skins, pick early and often. Grown every season since 1999. High Seed Potency
4 feet 6 to 18 inches
Burp 48, Recommend
Super Zuke
(Cucurbita pepo) - extremely productive zucchini, seedless. Grown in 2002-2007. Will grow in '08. Low Seed Potency.
5 feet long as you want
Jung 58, Recommend
Perfect Pick Hybrid Zuc
(Cucurbita pepo) - extremely productive zucchini, seedless. Low Seed Potency.
5 feet long as you want
Feld 50, John 52, Pine 50, Park 50, Vrmt 50, Recommend
Sunburst Scallop/Pattypan, [AAS Winner]
(Cucurbita pepo) - vigorous producer, fruit is 2 inches high and has great flavor. Grown in 2002-07. Will grow in '08. Medium Seed Potency
5 feet 3 to 6 inches
Considering:
Park 50, Northern States Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) - From the Park catalog: "41 days. The name doesn't lie -- this is the earliest and most productive zucchini we have ever grown in cooler climates!

If you live where springs are long and chilly, you may have had to sow squash late, only to be frustrated by its comparatively slow growth in cool summer weather. While the rest of the country is talking about bags of unwanted end-of-season squash going a-beggin' on church doorsteps, you're simply hoping for enough warm days left to ripen your crop!

Enter Northern States Hybrid, a heavy-bearing, midnight-green variety packed with nutrition and flavor. Long, slender, and smooth, these zukes look as good as they taste. And they arise heavily and quickly, enabling you to get in your whole crop and maybe even fill a bag or two for the neighbors.

The secret to Northern States's success is its plant habit. It's wide open, so the fruit lies completely exposed on the earth, as if it's sunbathing instead of huddling beneath a towel! The open habit also improves the air circulation within the plant, which helps prevent disease. Sunlight and fresh air -- the solution to so many garden problems!

Of course, the spineless habit of the plant also makes harvesting easier. Expect the squash to begin turning dark green just a month or so after sowing, and be ready to eat just a few days later. You'll love this succulent, juicy zucchini!" Medium Seed Potency

5 feet 3 to 6 inches


Squash - Winter


Days to

Maturity

Name - Description Plant Height/Length Product
Recommend:
Jung 90, Reim 90, Recommend
Acorn - Heart of Gold
(Cucurbita pepo) - Best producing winter squash we have ever grown, white with green stripes, acorn-type fruit but heart-shaped, about same size as acorn, milder flavor than Table Ace. Produced well in 2004 and 2005 - very cold seasons, grown in 2006-2012, 2017, 2018. ! Medium Seed Potency
8 feet 7 inches
Jung 80, Vrmt 70, Recommend
Acorn - Table Ace
(Cucurbita pepo) - dark green, delicious, semi-bush plant, 5 inch wide fruit, productive in our climate. Have planted every year from 2000 to 2008. Did not grow well in 2004 or 2005 - very cold seasons, but did alright in 2008 another cold year. Medium Seed Potency
3 feet 7 inches
Bakr 55, Stok 75, Acorn - Cream of the Crop (Cucurbita pepo) From the Baker Creek catalog: "White bush-acorn type. The fruits are white and on the large side for an acorn, weighing in at 2-3 pounds. This variety is great picked small and used as a summer squash, or let ripen and use for winter storage. This variety is perfect for small spaces and was grown in Jere's childhood gardens." Grown in 2013. It outperformed Table Ace Acorn. It has great flavor when cooked. 10 feet 12 pounds
John 90, Jung 95-105, Stok 100, Hubbard - Red October(Cucurbita Maxima) - From the Jung catalog: "Brilliantly colored fruits are both ornamental and edible. The 5 to 6 pound uniform fruits resemble hubbard squash and are a fantastic shade of bright red-orange, perfect for fall decorations. The fine grained flesh is deliciously sweet and dry. Long vines produce an average of 2 fruits each." Grown again in 2013 with strong results. Very Productive. " ? 5 to 6 pounds
Pine 90, Spaghetti - Vermicelli(Cucurbita Maxima) - Grown in 2011 and 2012 with good production. Will grow again. From the Pinetree catalog: "It is earlier, grows more densely in less space, and is a more dependable provider of uniform fruit. This is a positive addition to your diet with great flavor. Spaghetti squash also provides the can - when the skin becomes hardened the fruit will keep for up to 6 months." Grown again in 2013 with strong results. Very Productive. ? ? pounds
Burp 100, John 88, Jung 90, Pine 90, Reim 85, SeedsN 95, Spaghetti - Squash(Cucurbita Maxima) - Grown in 2011 and 2012 with good production. Will grow again. From the Pinetree catalog: "It is earlier, grows more densely in less space, and is a more dependable provider of uniform fruit. This is a positive addition to your diet with great flavor. Spaghetti squash also provides the can - when the skin becomes hardened the fruit will keep for up to 6 months." Grown again in 2013-2018 with strong results. Very Productive. ? ? pounds
Considering:
Bakr 95, Burp 100, Pine 100, Seed 88, Hubbard - Lakota (Cucurbita maxima) - a small hubbard, developed from an heirloom originally from the Lakota (Sioux). It produced squash for us in 2008, 2009, and 2010 cold years. We have grown this for at least 10 seasons and will grow it again in 2013. Grown in 2013 and it severly underproduced, particularly when compared to Red October - another hubbard type. 12 feet 5 to 7 pounds
Jung 83, Butternut - Canesi (Cucurbita moschata) - Very early Buttercup, worth a try. From the Jung Seed Catalog: "The earliest butternut squash to date. Smooth, tan-skinned fruits are large for an early variety, measuring 10 to 12 inches in length and weighing about 6 lbs. each. The seed cavity is small, so you get more flesh per fruit. And great-tasting, bright yellow flesh it is - sweet, fine-textured and smooth. Bigorous and productive. Fruits keep well in storage." Grown in 2010, a very cold season, and we were on the verge of getting a ton of these when the first hard frost hit. Will try again in 2011. 5 feet 6 pounds
Burp 75, Butternut - Butterbush (Cucurbita moschata) - Very early Buttercup, worth a try. From the Burpee Seed Catalog: "Deep red-orange flesh is rich and delicious. Space-saving, bush-type plants grow only 3 ft long. Each bears 4-5 butternut-shaped fruits averaging 1½ lbs. A sweet staple and a great source of vitamin A. Winter squash keeps for months and makes superb pie. Plant when soil is warm. For bush types, sow 3-4 seeds in groups (hills) spaced 6-8 ft apart. 25 seeds per packet, will plant 6 groups." 5 feet 1 1/2 pounds
Bakr 100, Pine 100, Stok 90, Hubbard - Golden Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima) From the Baker Creek catalog: "Also called 'Genesee Red Hubbard' and was introduced in 1898. The 12 lb. fruit are teardrop-shaped, brilliant red and lightly warted, making this one of the most beautiful of the Hubbard types. The flesh is very thick, sweet and orange with a fine old-fashioned squash flavor." We have grown this one about every fourth year for at least 20 years. Best grown in what is expected to be a hot summer. 10 feet 12 pounds
Bakr ?, Pine 95, ? - Golden Delicious Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima) From the Baker Creek catalog: "100 days (C. maxima). Lives up to the name; these squash are delicious! Fruit are teardrop shaped and weigh 7-9 lbs. with brilliant red-orange rind. Flesh is very smooth, tasty and orange. This variety was introduced by Gill Bros. Seed Co. of Portland Oregon in 1926. " 10 feet 12 pounds
Bakr 105, Banana - Jumbo Pink Banana (Cucurbita maxima) From the Baker Creek catalog: "Large, pink, banana-shaped fruit can weigh 10-40 lbs. This variety is over 100 years old. We have grown this squash for many years. Fine-flavored, dry, sweet, orange flesh that is superbly fine tasting, one of my favorites. Popular on the West Coast, large yeilds." 10 feet 10-40 pounds
Bakr 90, Buttercup? - Strawberry Crown (Cucurbita maxima) From the Baker Creek catalog: "Beautiful, flat 6 lb. fruit are bicolored in brownish-grey and are ususally blushed with salmon. This variety was brought to the USA from Brazil, by seed collector Mary Schultz. Good earliness in a winter squash." 10 feet 6 pounds
Bakr 95, Hubbard - Sweet Meat (Cucurbita maxima) From the Baker Creek catalog: "A delicious heirloom from Oregon; excellent flavored deep orange flesh, very sweet. Fruit are large and flattened in shape. Skin color is a beautiful deep-sea-green. Our family grew this one more than twenty years ago when we lived in Oregon." 10 feet 6 pounds
Bakr 90, Turks Cap or Turban (Cucurbita Maxima) - Very early Turban, worth a try. From the Baker Creek Seed Catalog: "A beautiful squash stiped in red, orange, green and white. A very old variety from France (pre-1820); fine thick orange flesh, good sized fruit. Unique." 5 feet ?
Bakr 90, Strawberry Crown (Cucurbita Maxima) - From the Baker Creek Seed Catalog: "Beautiful, flat 6 lb. fruit are bicolored in brownish-grey and are usually blushed with salmon. This variety was brought to the USA from Brazil, by seed collector Mary Schultz. Good earliness in a winter squash." 5 feet 6 lb.
Bakr 95, Nich 95, Terr 115, Hubbard - Sweet Meat (Cucurbita maxima) - best squash for pies period, SSSP 10 feet 10 to 15 pounds
Jung 84, Pine 85, Stok 75, Vrmt 84, Kobocha - Sweet Mama - [AAS Winner] (Cucurbita maxima) - fat-disk shape, black, Grew in 2009, a cold year, adequate production. SSP 5 feet 2 to 3 pounds
Bakr 95, John 95, Jung 100, Pine 100, Buttercup - Burgess (Cucurbita maxima) - extra sweet flesh. This squash and Hubbard Squash have the best flavor. Black, round, straight sides, rounded button bottom. Produced well in 2004 and 2005 - very cold seasons. Grown 1997-07. Would grow again some time.Medium Seed Potency 11 feet 3 to 10 pounds
Burp 75, Acorn - Early (Cucurbita pepo) - yeilds 5 fruit per plant, sweet nutty and smooth flesh SSPPP ? 3 to 4 pounds
Jung 95, Shum 90, Hubbard - Baby Blue(Cucurbita maxima) - same as the big blue, but much smaller SSSP ? 5 to 7 pounds
Burp 100, Butternut - Pilgrim(Cucurbita maxima) - From the Burpee catalog: "Bush variety, the most flavorful we've ever grown. Pilgrim may well be the best, most buttery, nutty, and flavorful winter squash ever. Restricted vine variety produces the yield of a full vine type, a continuing, bountiful harvest of uniform 2-3 lb. fruit with thick meaty necks and loads of much usable meat. Fruits resist cracking during temperature fluctuations." ? 2 to 3 pounds
Jung 95, ? - Jamboree(Cucurbita ?) - From the Jung catalog: "Classy and decorative. Rivals the best winter squash for eating quality. The lightly ribbed, flattened round fruits are smooth and hard-shelled with a cool greenish-blue-gray color that makes them beautiful enough for table centerpieces and autumn displays. They weigh 9 to 11 pounds with a 10 to 12 inch diameter. The sweet orange flesh is fine-grained with flavor that compares with buttercup squash. Makes superb soups, stew, and pies plus it bakes and freezes well. Vigorous high-yielding vines have good resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Papaya Ring Spot. " ? 9 to 11 pounds
Have Grown in the Past:
Jung 95, Nich 75, Park 85, Pine 82, Stok 75, Terr 85, Vrmt 85, Early Butternut , All America Winner(Cucurbita moschata) - sweet-nutty flavor, fat neck of the fruit is solid meat., small seed cavity. Grown in 2001, and 2008, and we are not happy with its performance in a cold season. 6 to 8 feet ? 3 to 5 pounds

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